Cyberwarfare involves the actions by a nation-state or international organization to attack and attempt to damage another nation's computers or information networks through, for example, computer viruses or denial-of-service attacks.

Take for example an incident in April 2020 when there was an attempt to steal passwords and possibly install malware on WHO computers. Employees received seemingly harmless emails about COVID-19 from news organizations and researchers. But upon close investigation, these emails contain malicious links and were traced back to an Iranian hacking group.